Historical and Military Cemeteries


Trapeza Cemetery Ano Toumpa (8-3 c. B.C.)

ADDRESS
Kyklaminon St.
TRANSPORT
12, 14, Lofiskos

The settlement’s cemetery was found to the east and north of Toumpa and was used from the 8th to the early 3rd c. B.C. It mainly consists of shaft graves, and cist graves. Cremation was rare. Ranging from the sparsely decorated tombs of the Iron Age to the rich burials of archaic and classical times, they reflect the diversity of funerary customs and the subsequent changes that took place both on an economic and social level.

Eastern Cemetery (Hellenistic-early Byzantine years)

The eastern cemetery spread from the wall, and the line drawn by Leoforos Ohi, Melenikou street and Filikis Etaireias street, all the way to Agia Triada district. Almost the whole of the University Campus was built inside it, and thus several significant burial complexes were unearthed when its buildings were being constructed. The earliest tombs are found at the western perimeter of the cemetery, quite close to the city, and include the Macedonian tomb at Sintrivani.

Complex at 3 Septemvriou Street (4-6 c. A.D.)

ADDRESS
3 Septemvriou St. & Leoforos Stratou
TRANSPORT
3, 10, 11, 31,  Stratigio

While 3 Septemvriou street was being constructed, the eastern part of a basilica was discovered among various clusters of graves, which was estimated to exceed 40 metres in length. The basilica is presumed to have been built in the second half of the 4 c., and indications of an extensive renovation in the 6 c. have also been found. A cruciform outbuilding to the south has been identified as a ‘martyrion’, i.e. a shrine and place of martyrdom.

Cubicula – Faculty of Law, Aristotle University

ADDRESS
Aristotle University, Faculty of Law
TRANSPORT
2, 7, 10, 14, 27, 31, 45, 58, 83, AΗEPA

The cubicula are the most complex burial structures as regards their ground plans; they also most probably housed family graves and were open to visitors. The cubiculum seen in front of the Faculty of Law is covered in marble pieces which meet in a red circle set inside a rhombus inscribed in a rectangle; its flooring has been preserved. At another cubiculum, the name of its owner by good fortune still remains engraved on the door: “Veniamis o kai Dometios”, bearing testimony to the transformations that took place in the Christianized world of the 4th century.

Burial complex of Evangelistria (6 c. A.D.)

ADDRESS
159, Agiou Dimitriou St.
TRANSPORT
Evangelistria

Graves and part of a building with a mosaic floor, consisting of two sections: the one shows entwined circles that contain geometric shapes, and the other joined octagons containing animals, birds and baskets of fruit. The building with the mosaic was most probably a covered corridor, leading to a centrally situated ‘martyrion’, in the current location of Agios Dimitrios hospital. The complex can be seen inside the cemetery of Evangelistria.

The Basilica at Sintrivani Square (5 c. A.D.)

A three-aisled paleochristian basilica was discovered in the west part of the Sintrivani underground station in Thessaloniki. It was built on the site of an older place of worship (4 c.) This building also housed a mosaic floor, part of which has been uncovered, showing a vine stalk with birds on its branches, including the mythical “Phoenix”. The mosaic was still visible during the initial phase of use of the basilica.

Western Cemetery (Hellenistic – early Byzantine years)

The western cemetery of Thessaloniki spread from the walls of Irinis and Arkadioupoleos St. (in Panagia Faneromeni) to Giannitson St., past the Railway Station, on to Leoforos Kallitheas and almost reached the Ring Road. Most graves are paleochristian, but some older ones have also been discovered, mainly close to the walls. Standing between the graves were grand funerary structures.

Church at the beginning of Agios Dimitrios Street (5 c. A.D.)

ADDRESS
Parko Ethnon
TRANSPORT
25, 27, 29, 35, 38, 56, 57, 64, Ergatikes Katoikies

The church was located just outside Litaia Gate, very close to the wall. It was a small, almost square, three-aisled basilica, with an apse to the east and a rich internal décor. The central aisle had a mosaic floor featuring deer standing beside a fountain. Today it can still be seen at the Park of Nations (Parko Ethnon).

Macedonian Tomb “Maievtirio” (late 3 c. B.C.)

ADDRESS
40, Papanastasiou St.
TRANSPORT
10, 11, Maievtirio

A single-chamber, vaulted Macedonian tomb under a small tumulus, at a distance of 2 km from the eastern wall, with a Doric façade facing north. Inside was found a built deathbed opposite the entrance, and traces of two more to the right and left. First excavated during WWI by the French Army, it was later discovered once more in 1940, while building a shelter.

Macedonian Tomb at Foinikas

ADDRESS
Agios Pavlos Hospital
TRANSPORT
2, 3, 4, 8, 78, Nosokomeio Agios Pavlos

The oldest example of a Macedonian tomb in the Doric order in the Thessaloniki area. Its façade has a width of 4.96 m and a height of 5.68 m, and is coated with white stucco. It contains two altar-shaped pedestals with a colourful linear décor and two stonebuilt benches, where offerings to the dead were placed.

Macedonian Tomb

ADDRESS
Media Markt Store
TRANSPORT
2, 3, 4, 8, 78, Nosokomeio Agios Pavlos

A tomb from early Hellenistic times (330-320 B.C.) which was discovered when the store was being constructed. It is directly linked to the tomb found opposite the entrance to Agios Pavlos hospital. It is a cist tomb, 2.90×2.10 m in size, with a rich décor of well-preserved plant motifs. The whole tomb is visible from the front of the store.

Northern Cemetery (Paleochristian-early Byzantine years)

ADDRESS
Eptapyrgio
TRANSPORT
23, Palio Terma, Scholio

The northern cemetery was built at the north-northeast section of the subsequent Acropolis, and also extended outside the walls. The most important groups of tombs have been found at the premises of the 2nd Gymnasio of Sykies on Eptapyrgiou street, and at the junction of Achilleos and Amaliados street in Agios Pavlos district. Some early Byzantine graves of a later period have also been identified scattered in the paleochristian cemetery.

Rotonda, Byzantine Tombs

ADDRESS
4, Agiou Georgiou St.
TRANSPORT
2, 8, 10, 11, 14, 17, 24, 27, 31, 37, 45, 58, 83
Kamara

Vaulted tombs from the Byzantine era were discovered under the floor of the southern, early byzantine propylon of the christian phase of the Rotonda, and also inside the eastern section of its courtyard.

Rotonda, Muslim Graves

ADDRESS
4, Agiou Georgiou St.
TRANSPORT
2, 8, 10, 11, 14, 17, 24, 27, 31, 37, 45, 58, 83
Kamara

A burial courtyard from the Ottoman period (1792) was constructed at the southern side of the apse of Rotonda’s altar. In its interior can be found the marble funerary monuments of Hortaji Suleyman Effendi, the seikh of a neighbouring dervish teke, who turned the Rotonda into a mosque in 1591, and of Yusuf Bey, who was responsible for its repairs in the second half of the 18th c.

Muslim Cemetery-Acropolis

ADDRESS
Eptapyrgio
TRANSPORT
23, Scholio

During the Ottoman period, the byzantine Acropolis was turned into a small independent town, Küҫük Selanik. Its Muslim cemetery spread to the north of the fortress, where the 2nd Secondary School of Sykies is located today, almost covering the same position where part of the paleochristian cemetery was located.

Musa Baba

ADDRESS
Terpsitheas Square
TRANSPORT
23, Koule Kafe

The octagonal (according to its ground plan) vaulted mausoleum of the sanctified Musa Baba, founded in 1527, is the only surviving “monastic-type” establishment of the bektashi dervishes order. After the population exchange and the removal of the bektashi saint’s remains by those leaving the city, the monument was left to ruin.

The Old Jewish Cemetery of Thessaloniki

ADDRESS
Aristotle University
TRANSPORT
2, 7, 10, 14, 27, 31, 45, 58, 83, AHEPA

The old Jewish cemetery of Thessaloniki was situated, from the early 15th century, at the site where the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki stands today. It included over 400,000 graves. Due to its extensive size, different names were given to certain sections of the cemetery, and the gravestone inscriptions were in Jewish, Ladino, French, Italian, Greek and other languages. During the German occupation (1941-1944), and following a visit by Merten, the General Military Commander of Thessaloniki & the Aegean and by the Governor General V. Simonides, an order was given on December 6, 1942and the cemetery was destroyed.

Christian Cemeteries of Evangelistria

ADDRESS
159, Agiou Dimitriou St.
TRANSPORT
15, 24, Evangelistria

At the Christian cemetery of Evangelistria, which first operated in 1880 and is no longer in use, can be found the graves of persons who played a major role in the city’s history in the 19th and 20th c. In 1973, it was decided to stop burials in individual graves, and only continue with the family graves, but this also stopped in 1980.

Exarchic-Bulgarian Cemetery
The Bulgarian cemetery operated along with the Patriarchic – Greek cemetery, but stopped after the liberation of Thessaloniki in 1912 and the settlement of the Entente forces in Thessaloniki in 1915. The area then became part of the Orthodox cemetery of Evangelistria. The last buildings of the Bulgarian cemetery were destroyed in 1956, and only the church of Evangelistria survived.

Armenian Cemetery
In 1885, after the first parish priest of the Armenian community of Thessaloniki, Michael Hovanesian, was appointed by the Armenian Apostolic Patriarchate of Thessaloniki, records were regularly kept of the births and deaths of its members. In the years 1887-1888, the Armenian community also managed to acquire its own privately-owned cemetery, in the area of the Christian cemetery of Evangelistria.

Protestant Cemetery
Part of the large area claimed by the Charitable Brotherhood of Thessaloniki for the Cemetery of the Greek Orthodox community at Evangelistria was assigned to the Protestant community of Thessaloniki.

Catholic Cemetery of St Vincent de Paul

ADDRESS
Koutifari & 28 Oktovriou St., Ampelokipi
TRANSPORT
27, 29, 38, 56, Agia Paraskevi

The Catholic cemetery of St Vincent de Paul was established close to Langada street between 1860 and 1867, in its current location, behind the allied cemeteries of Zeitinlik. An older Catholic cemetery of Thessaloniki was located outside the gate of Kalamaria (in the Sintrivani area), where burials took place until 1860.

Allied Military Cemeteries of Zeitinlik

ADDRESS
136, Langada St.
TRANSPORT
27, 29, 38, 56, Symmachika

The largest military cemetery in the Balkan peninsula. Here lie the men of the Entente forces who died at the Salonika Front (WWI). During the 1920s, the Allied Cemeteries were given their final layout and were split into five sections: French, Serbian, Russian, Italian and the British Commonwealth.

French Military Cemetery – Zeitinlik
The cemetery with the largest number of graves from the Great War all over Greek Macedonia. It holds the graves of 8,310 French soldiers who died at the Salonika Front. Of these, 8,102 have been buried in individual graves, while 208 are in a vestry. There is also a small church and a monument-shrine at the site, and in 2014 a small museum was established about the Salonika Front, which includes heirlooms, photographs and audiovisual material.

Serbian Military Cemetery – Zeitinlik
The site of the first burials of Serbian soldiers who were camped in Thessaloniki in 1916. It includes 7,440 fallen in the Great War and 129 from World War II. There is also a large church-mausoleum, built in the period 1933-1936, designed by the architect Aleksandar Vasic. The remains of 5,580 Serbian soldiers killed at the front were transferred to this cemetery from 213 makeshift graveyards in Macedonia.

Italian Military Cemetery – Zeitinlik
Situated to the left of the Serbian cemetery, it is rectangular in shape and includes the graves of 3,000 Italians, mainly killed at the Albanian Front.

Salonika (Lembet Road) Military Cemetery
It is the main Commonwealth Cemetery in Thessaloniki. It includes the graves of 1,648 soldiers of the Commonwealth and 45 Bulgarian soldiers. A notable feature is the grave of nurse Katharine Mary Harley (1855-1917), who was killed during the bombardment of Monastiri on 17 March 1917. It is designed by Robert Lorimer.

Russian Military Cemetery – Zeitinlik
The Russian section of the Allied Cemeteries is located right behind the Serbian section. It holds 496 individual graves of Russian officers and soldiers from the Salonika Front. In 2000, a monument made of black granite was placed on site to honour all those of Russian origin who died in the Great War, crafted by the sculptor Giorgos Kikotis.

Commonwealth Military Cemetery – Mikra

ADDRESS
40, K. Karamanli St., Kalamaria
TRANSPORT
2, 3, 4, 8, Stratopedo

The site was used for burials from April 1917 to the mid 1920s. After the end of the war, those buried in makeshift graveyards were also moved there. Designed by Robert Lorimer, it contains the graves of 1,810 British Army and Navy troops, and of 149 soldiers of other nationalities.
The victims of the naval war are in total 477 officers, sailors, soldiers and nurses. A memorial was constructed in their memory and of those missing in action.

Kirechkoi – Hortakoi Military Cemetery

ADDRESS
Asvestochori
TRANSPORT
57, Palio Terma

From January 1916 to January 1919, the area was used as a base by several hospital units from Great Britain and its colonies. Most graves belong to persons who died of a Spanish flu epidemic. They include 588 Commonwealth soldiers, 58 Bulgarian prisoners of war, and 17 British soldiers who died in WWII.

Monastir Road Indian Cemetery

ADDRESS
Megalou Alexandrou st., Dendropotamos
TRANSPORT
1, 19, 51, 54, 80, 81, 82, 89, ΕVΑΜ

The cemetery contains the graves of Indians who died in the Great War from 1916 to February 1920, namely 384 Hindus, 107 Muslim Indians, 26 Sikhs and 1 to 3 Christian Indians. There is also a Hindu memorial, which holds the ashes of 220 fallen soldiers, a memorial to the 130 missing Indian soldiers of the Macedonian Front, and the 33 missing Indians of the British Royal Navy. There are also 107 graves of Muslim Indians from the British Army in the cemetery.

New Jewish Cemetery of Thessaloniki

ADDRESS
29, Karaoli & Dimitriou St., Stavroupoli
TRANSPORT
1, 32, 34, AGNO

Created after 1937, today it holds over 1,200 graves. There is a monument dedicated to the memory of the 50,000 Thessalonian Jews who were murdered in the Nazi camps. Graves and gravestones have also been moved here, which were found scattered at the old destroyed cemetery. There is also a memorial for the Greek Jewish soldiers who died defending Greece in the Greek-Italian war. The remains of the first Greek Jewish officer who died in Albania in 1940, Mordechai Frizis, were also moved here.

Military Cemetery – 3rd Army Corps

ADDRESS
1, Kissou St., Toumpa
TRANSPORT
14, Girokomeio

Located in the area of Pylaia, next to the municipal cemetery. Built in 1942 by the Germans as a military cemetery, it was used to bury the German soldiers who died during the German occupation (1941-1949). It included the graves of 1,100 German officers and soldiers. In the early 1950s, their remains were moved to the cemetery in Dionysos, Attica. The site was then assigned to the 3rd Army Corps, and now holds the graves of officers and soldiers who have died in recent military operations undertaken by the 3rd Army Corps.

Source of texts

Ephorate of Antiquities of the City of Thessaloniki  /  History Centre of Thessaloniki  /  Vlasis Vlasidis  /  Lela Salem